Randomized controlled trial of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on childhood allergies.
Allergy. 2013 Sep 21; doi: 10.1111/all.12233.
D J Palmer, T Sullivan, M S Gold, S L Prescott, R Heddle, R A Gibson, M Makrides
Women's & Children's Health Research Institute, North Adelaide, SA, Australia; School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Subiaco, WA, Australia.
BACKGROUND : Diets high in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) may modulate the development of IgE-mediated allergic disease and have been proposed as a possible allergy prevention strategy. The aim of this study was to determine whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation of pregnant women reduces IgE-mediated allergic disease in their children.
METHODS : Follow-up of children (n = 706) at hereditary risk of allergic disease in the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimise Mother Infant Outcome randomized controlled trial. The intervention group (n = 368) was randomly allocated to receive fish oil capsules (providing 900 mg of n-3 LCPUFA daily) from 21 weeks' gestation until birth; the control group (n = 338) received matched vegetable oil capsules without n-3 LCPUFA. The diagnosis of allergic disease was made during medical assessments at 1 and 3 years of age.
RESULTS : No differences were seen in the overall percentage of children with IgE-mediated allergic disease in the first 3 years of life between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (64/368 (17.3%) vs 76/338 (22.6%); adjusted relative risk 0.78; 95% CI 0.58-1.06; P = 0.11). Eczema was the most common allergic disease; 13.8% of children in the n-3 LCPUFA group had eczema with sensitization compared with 19.0% in the control group (adjusted relative risk 0.75; 95% CI 0.53-1.05; P = 0.10).
CONCLUSIONS : Overall, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy did not significantly reduce IgE-associated allergic disease in the first 3 years of life. Further studies should examine whether the nonsignificant reductions in IgE-associated allergies are of clinical and public health significance.